Self-reported assessment tools are commonly used in IPE to measure change in student attitudes and/or perceptions. Real time pre-tests measurements are subject to ‘response-shift bias’. A response-shift bias occurs when there is a change in the participant’s understanding of the content, therefore changing the participant’s standard of measurement (Howard and Dailey, J. Appl. Psychol. 64, 144; 1979). The Student Perceptions of Interprofessional Clinical Education - Revised 2 (SPICE-R2) tool is used to measure students’ perceptions towards interprofessional teamwork and team-based practice (Factor 1: 4 questions), roles/responsibilities for collaborative practice (Factor 2: 3 questions), and patient outcomes from collaborative practice (Factor 3: 3 questions) in a 10-item questionnaire.
480 students from 19 programs engaged in a two-year longitudinal IPE experience at LSU Health-New Orleans. The students completed the SPICE-R2 before year 1 (Pre Year 1), at the end of year 1 (Post Year 1), at the beginning of year 2 (Pre Year 2) and at the end of year 2 (Post Year 2). All responses were recorded in real time, except during Post Year 2 where students were also given a retrospective pre-test design. A significant (p < 0.0001) decrease in the total and Factor 1 SPICE-R2 means was found between Pre Year 1 and Post Year 1. The largest decrease was noted between Pre Year 1 and retrospective Pre Year 2 (from 42.16 ± 4.46 to 37.23 ± 5.90, p < 0.0001). There was also a significant increase in means between retrospective Pre Year 2 and Post Year 2 (from 37.23 ± 5.90 to 38.91 ± 7.84, p < 0.0001). These results, which will be validated with subsequent cohorts, caution the reliability of using self-reported assessment tools in real time prior to longitudinal IPE experiences, since early learners’ understanding of interprofessional collaboration will change overtime and change the standard of measurement by which they are evaluating each question.
In support of improving patient care, this activity is planned and implemented by The National Center for Interprofessional Practice and Education. The National Center for Interprofessional Practice and Education is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME), the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE), and the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC) to provide continuing education for the healthcare team.
As a Jointly Accredited Provider, the National Center is approved to offer social work continuing education by the Association of Social Work Boards (ASWB) Approved Continuing Education (ACE) program. Organizations, not individual courses, are approved under this program. State and provincial regulatory boards have the final authority to determine whether an individual course may be accepted for continuing education credit. The National Center maintains responsibility for this course. Social workers completing this course receive continuing education credits.
This activity was planned by and for the healthcare team, and learners will receive Interprofessional Continuing Education (IPCE) credit for learning and change.
- Physicians: This activity will be designated for CME AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)TM through ACCME.
- Physician Assistants: NCCPA accepts AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™ from organizations accredited by ACCME or a recognized state medical society.
- Nurses: This activity will be designated for CNE nursing contact hours through ANCC.
- Pharmacists and Pharmacy Technicians: This activity will be designated for CPE contact hours (CEUs) through ACPE.
- Social Workers: This activity will be designated for social work continuing education credits through ASWB.
- All health professionals: This activity was planned by and for the healthcare team, and learners will receive Interprofessional Continuing Education (IPCE) credit for learning and change.